Inside NGINX: How We Designed for Performance and Scale

Inside NGINX: How We Designed for Performance and Scale

  • The master process performs the privileged operations such as reading configuration and binding to ports, and then creates a small number of child processes (the next three types).
  • The cache loader process runs at startup to load the disk-based cache into memory, and then exits. It is scheduled conservatively, so its resource demands are low.
  • The cache manager process runs periodically and prunes entries from the disk caches to keep them within the configured sizes.
  • The worker processes do all of the work! They handle network connections, read and write content to disk, and communicate with upstream servers.

The NGINX configuration recommended in most cases – running one worker process per CPU core – makes the most efficient use of hardware resources.

Each NGINX worker process is initialized with the NGINX configuration and is provided with a set of listen sockets by the master process.

The NGINX worker processes begin by waiting for events on the listen sockets (accept_mutex and kernel socket sharding). Events are initiated by new incoming connections. These connections are assigned to a state machine – the HTTP state machine is the most commonly used, but NGINX also implements state machines for stream (raw TCP) traffic and for a number of mail protocols (SMTP, IMAP, and POP3).

Updating NGINX configuration is a very simple, lightweight, and reliable operation. It typically just means running the nginx –s reload command, which checks the configuration on disk and sends the master process a SIGHUP signal.

When the master process receives a SIGHUP, it does two things:

  1. Reloads the configuration and forks a new set of worker processes. These new worker processes immediately begin accepting connections and processing traffic (using the new configuration settings).
  2. Signals the old worker processes to gracefully exit. The worker processes stop accepting new connections. As soon as each current HTTP request completes, the worker process cleanly shuts down the connection (that is, there are no lingering keepalives). Once all connections are closed, the worker processes exit.

This reload process can cause a small spike in CPU and memory usage, but it’s generally imperceptible compared to the resource load from active connections. You can reload the configuration multiple times per second (and many NGINX users do exactly that). Very rarely, issues arise when there are many generations of NGINX worker processes waiting for connections to close, but even those are quickly resolved.

NGINX’s binary upgrade process achieves the holy grail of high-availability – you can upgrade the software on the fly, without any dropped connections, downtime, or interruption in service.


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