springrts.com: Lua Performance

springrts.com: Lua Performance

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Lua Performance
Contents [hide]
1 Overview
2 Other Considerations
3 Performance Tests
3.1 TEST 1: Localize
3.2 TEST 2: Localized Class-Methods (with only 3 accesses!)
3.3 TEST 3: Unpack A Table
3.4 TEST 4: Determine Maximum And Set It (‘>’ vs. max)
3.5 TEST 5: Nil Checks (‘if’ vs. ‘or’)
3.6 TEST 6: ‘x^2’ vs. ‘x*x’
3.7 TEST 7: Modulus Operators (math.mod vs. %)
3.8 TEST 8: Functions As Param For Other Functions
3.9 TEST 9: for-loops
3.10 TEST 10: Array Access (with [ ]) vs. Object Access (with .method)
3.11 TEST 11: Buffered Table Item Access
3.12 TEST 12: Adding Table Items (table.insert vs. [ ])
3.13 TEST 12: Adding Table Items (mytable ={} vs. mytable={…})
4 Lua Garbage Collection
Overview
This page is copied from the CA wiki. The widget used in the performance tests is available from the CA SVN.
Other Considerations
It is a well known axiom in computing that
“We should forget about small efficiencies, say about 97% of the time: premature optimization is the root of all evil”
– Donald Knuth
Lua coders should keep that in mind, and especially when visiting this page. Readability and maintainability are in most cases just as important, and optimizing code for every last ounce of performance can severely impact those qualities. On the other hand, some of the optimizations suggested have little bearing on readability and should generally always be applied, e.g. localization of API functions, or actually make for neater code e.g. the use of or rather than a nil-check. Generally speaking, optimize only once you are sure that there is or will be a performance bottleneck.
Performance Tests
TEST 1: Localize
Code:
local min = math.min

Results:
Non-local: 0.719 (158%)
Localized: 0.453 (100%)
Conclusion:
Yes, we should localize all standard lua and Spring API functions.

TEST 2: Localized Class-Methods (with only 3 accesses!)
Code 1:
for i=1,1000000 do
local x = class.test()
local y = class.test()
local z = class.test()
end

Code 2:
for i=1,1000000 do
local test = class.test
local x = test()
local y = test()
local z = test()
end

Results:
Normal way: 1.203 (102%)
Localized: 1.172 (100%)
Conclusion:
No, it isn’t faster to localize a class method IN the function call.

TEST 3: Unpack A Table
Code 1:
for i=1,1000000 do
local x = min( a[1],a[2],a[3],a[4] )
end

Code 2:
local unpack = unpack
for i=1,1000000 do
local x = min( unpack(a) )
end

Code 3:
local function unpack4(a)
return a[1],a[2],a[3],a[4]
end
for i=1,1000000 do
local x = min( unpack4(a) )
end

Results:
with [ ]: 0.485 (100%)
unpack(): 1.093 (225%)
custom unpack4: 0.641 (131%)
Conclusion:
Don’t use unpack() in time critical code!

TEST 4: Determine Maximum And Set It (‘>’ vs. max)
Code 1:
local max = math.max
for i=1,1000000 do
x = max(random(cnt),x)
end

Code 2:
for i=1,1000000 do
local r = random(cnt)
if (r>x) then x = r end
end

Results:
math.max: 0.437 (156%)
‘if > then’: 0.282 (100%)
Conclusion:
Don’t use math.[max|min]() in time critical code!

TEST 5: Nil Checks (‘if’ vs. ‘or’)
Code 1:
for i=1,1000000 do
local y,x
if (random()>0.5) then y=1 end
if (y==nil) then x=1 else x=y end
end

Code 2:
for i=1,1000000 do
local y
if (random()>0.5) then y=1 end
local x=y or 1
end

Results:
nil-check: 0.297 (106%)
a=x or y: 0.281 (100%)
Conclusion:
The or-operator is faster than a nil-check. Use it!

TEST 6: ‘x^2’ vs. ‘x*x’
Code 1:
for i=1,1000000 do
local y = x^2
end

Code 2:
for i=1,1000000 do
local y = x*x
end

Results:
x^2: 1.422 (110%)
x*x: 1.297 (100%)
Conclusion:
The second syntax is marginally faster

TEST 7: Modulus Operators (math.mod vs. %)
Code 1:
local fmod = math.fmod
for i=1,1000000 do
if (fmod(i,30)<1) then
local x = 1
end
end

Code 2:
for i=1,1000000 do
if ((i%30)<1) then
local x = 1
end
end

Results:
math.mod: 0.281 (355%)
%: 0.079 (100%)
Conclusion:
Don't use math.fmod() for positive numbers (for negative ones % and fmod() have different results!)

TEST 8: Functions As Param For Other Functions
Code 1:
local func1 = function(a,b,func)
return func(a+b)
end

for i=1,1000000 do
local x = func1(1,2,function(a) return a*2 end)
end

Code 2:
local func1 = function(a,b,func)
return func(a+b)
end
local func2 = function(a)
return a*2
end

for i=1,1000000 do
local x = func1(1,2,func2)
end

Results:
defined in function param: 3.890 (1144%)
defined as local: 0.344 (100%)
Conclusion:
REALLY, LOCALIZE YOUR FUNCTIONS ALWAYS BEFORE SENDING THEM INTO ANOTHER FUNCTION!!! i.e if you use gl.BeginEnd(), gl.CreateList(), …!!!

TEST 9: for-loops
Code 1:
for i=1,1000000 do
for j,v in pairs(a) do
x=v
end
end

Code 2:
for i=1,1000000 do
for j,v in ipairs(a) do
x=v
end
end

Code 3:
for i=1,1000000 do
for i=1,100 do
x=a[i]
end
end

Code 4:
for i=1,1000000 do
for i=1,#a do
x=a[i]
end
end

Code 5:
for i=1,1000000 do
local length = #a
for i=1,length do
x=a[i]
end
end

Results:
pairs: 3.078 (217%)
ipairs: 3.344 (236%)
for i=1,x do: 1.422 (100%)
for i=1,#atable do 1.422 (100%)
for i=1,atable_length do: 1.562 (110%)
Conclusion:
Don't use pairs() or ipairs() in critical code! Try to save the table-size somewhere and use for i=1,x do!

TEST 10: Array Access (with [ ]) vs. Object Access (with .method)
Code 1:
for i=1,1000000 do
x = a["foo"]
end

Code 2:
for i=1,1000000 do
x = a.foo
end

Results:
atable["foo"]: 1.125 (100%)
atable.foo: 1.141 (101%)
Conclusion:
No difference.

TEST 11: Buffered Table Item Access
Code 1:
for i=1,1000000 do
for n=1,100 do
a[n].x=a[n].x+1
end
end

Code 2:
for i=1,1000000 do
for n=1,100 do
local y = a[n]
y.x=y.x+1
end
end

Results:
'a[n].x=a[n].x+1': 1.453 (127%)
'local y=a[n]; y.x=y.x+1': 1.140 (100%)
Conclusion:
Buffering can speed up table item access.

TEST 12: Adding Table Items (table.insert vs. [ ])
Code 1:
local tinsert = table.insert
for i=1,1000000 do
tinsert(a,i)
end

Code 2:
for i=1,1000000 do
a[i]=i
end

Code 3:
for i=1,1000000 do
a[#a+1]=i
end

Code 4:
local count = 1
for i=1,1000000 do
d[count]=i
count=count+1
end

Results:
table.insert: 1.250 (727%)
a[i]: 0.172 (100%)
a[#a+1]=x: 0.453 (263%)
a[count++]=x: 0.203 (118%)
Conclusion:
Don't use table.insert!!! Try to save the table-size somewhere and use a[count+1]=x!

TEST 12: Adding Table Items (mytable ={} vs. mytable={…})
When you write {true, true, true} , Lua knows beforehand that the table will need three slots in its array part, so Lua creates the table with that size. Similarly, if you write {x = 1, y = 2, z = 3}, Lua will create a table with four slots in its hash part.
As an example, the next loop runs in 2.0 seconds:

for i = 1, 1000000 do
local a = {}
a[1] = 1; a[2] = 2; a[3] = 3
end
If we create the tables with the right size, we reduce the run t ime to 0.7 seconds:
for i = 1, 1000000 do
local a = {true, true, true}
a[1] = 1; a[2] = 2; a[3] = 3
end
If you write something like {[1] = true, [2] = true, [3] = true}, however, Lua is not smart enough to detect that the given expressions (literal numbers, in this case) describe array indices, so it creates a table with four slots in its hash part, wasting memory and CPU time

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