Which Programming Languages Use the Least Electricity?

Which Programming Languages Use the Least Electricity?


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Which Programming Languages Use the Least Electricity?
20 May 2018 6:00am, by David Cassel
DNA sequence-finding test results (screenshot from web site
Can energy usage data tell us anything about the quality of our programming languages?

Last year a team of six researchers in Portugal from three different universities decided to investigate this question, ultimately releasing a paper titled “Energy Efficiency Across Programming Languages.” They ran the solutions to 10 programming problems written in 27 different languages, while carefully monitoring how much electricity each one used — as well as its speed and memory usage.

esults – Energy, time and memory usage (screenshot from research paper)

Specifically, they used 10 problems from the Computer Language Benchmarks Game, a free software project for comparing performance which includes a standard set of simple algorithmic problems, as well as a framework for running tests. (It was formerly known as “The Great Computer Language Shootout.”) “This allowed us to obtain a comparable, representative, and extensive set of programs… along with the compilation/execution options, and compiler versions.”

It was important to run a variety of benchmark tests because ultimately their results varied depending on which test was being performed. For example, overall the C language turned out to be the fastest and also the most energy efficient. But in the benchmark test which involved scanning a DNA database for a particular genetic sequence, Rust was the most energy-efficient — while C came in third.

Yet even within that same test, the “best” language depends on what your criterion is. For that test C also turned out to be only the second fastest language (again, placing behind Rust). But Rust dropped a full nine positions if the results were sorted by memory usage. And while Fortran was the second most energy efficient language for this test, it also dropped a full six positions when the results were instead sorted by execution time.

A faster language is not always the most energy efficient.

The researchers note that they “strictly followed” the CLBG project’s guidelines about compiler versions and the best optimization flags. Power consumption was measured using a tool from Intel — the Running Average Power Limit tool — with each program executed not just once, but 10 times, “to reduce the impact of cold starts and cache effects, and to be able to analyze the measurements’ consistency and avoid outliers.” (For this reason, they report that “the measured results are quite consistent.”) For added consistency, all of the tests were on a desktop running Linux Ubuntu Server 16.10 (kernel version 4.8.0-22-generic), with 16GB of RAM and a 3.20GHz Haswell Intel Core i5-4460 CPU.

In their paper, the researchers call out some interesting results.

“Lisp, on average, consumes 2.27x more energy (131.34J) than C, while taking 2.44x more time to execute (4926.99ms), and 1.92x more memory (126.64Mb) needed when compared to Pascal.”

They also compared the results from compiled languages versus interpreted languages (with a separate category for languages that run on virtual machines). And the paper also includes a separate comparison of the different programming paradigms — including both functional and imperative programming, plus object-oriented programming and scripting.

Is Faster Greener?
The paper took a hard look at the common assumption that a faster program will always use less energy, pointing out that it’s not as simple as the law of physics that says E(nergy) = T(ime) x P(ower). This is partly because power isn’t expended at a consistent rate, the researchers note, suggesting that may be impacting the work of other researchers investigating whether a program’s running time affects its energy consumption. (“Conclusions regarding this issue diverge sometimes…”) In one of their benchmark tests, a Chapel program took 55 percent less time to execute than an equivalent program written in Pascal — and yet that Pascal program used 10 percent less energy.

So while there’s still a common belief that energy consumption goes down when programs run faster, the researchers state unequivocally that “a faster language is not always the most energy efficient.”

It can be a hard question to answer, since power consumption is affected by many factors (including the quality of the compiler and what libraries are used). But ultimately the researchers were even able to break down energy consumption based on whether it was being consumed by the CPU or DRAM — concluding that the majority of power (around 88 percent) was consumed by the CPU, on average, whether the benchmark program was compiled, interpreted, or run on a virtual machine.

Interestingly, interpreted languages showed a slightly higher variation, with the CPU sometimes consuming as much as 92.90 percent of the power or as little as 81.57 percent.

After studying their results, the researchers also concluded that the relationship between peak usage of DRAM and energy consumption “is almost non-existent.”

The research provides some more insights into the perennial question: is faster greener? Yes, it’s true that “the top five most energy-efficient languages keep their rank when they are sorted by execution time and with very small differences in both energy and time values.”

In fact, for nine out of 10 benchmark problems, the top score (for both speed and energy efficiency) came from one of the top three overall fastest and most energy-efficient languages — which didn’t surprise the researchers. “It is common knowledge that these top three languages (C, C++, and Rust) are known to be heavily optimized and efficient for execution performance, as our data also shows.”

But you don’t see the same order when you rank the other 24 languages by their run-time as you do when you rank them for energy efficiency. “Only four languages maintain the same energy and time rank (OCaml, Haskel, Racket, and Python), while the remainder are completely shuffled.”

And even on individual benchmark tests, there are cases where fast-performing languages are not the most energy efficient.

The Pros of Compiled Languages
There were other interesting results. Compiled languages “tend to be” the most energy-efficient and fastest-running — and their paper can even quantify that difference with a number. “On average, compiled languages consumed 120J [joules] to execute the solutions, while for a virtual machine and interpreted languages this value was 576J and 2365J, respectively.”

The researchers also applied the same precision when comparing execution times, concluding that on average, “compiled languages took 5103ms, virtual machine languages took 20623ms, and interpreted languages took 87614ms.”

Of the top five languages in both categories, four of them were compiled. (The exception? Java.)

Energy consumed Run-time
C 57J 2019 ms
Rust 59J 2103 ms
C++ 77J 3155 ms
Ada 98J 3740 ms
Java 114J 3821 ms
The five slowest languages were all interpreted: Lua, Python, Perl, Ruby and Typescript. And the five languages which consumed the most energy were also interpreted: Perl, Python, Ruby, JRuby, and Lua.

But at the same time, when manipulating strings with regular expression, three of the five most energy-efficient languages turn out to be interpreted languages (TypeScript, JavaScript, and PHP), “although they tend to be not very energy efficient in other scenarios.”

Compiled languages also took the top five slots for least amount of memory space used.

Language Memory space needed
Pascal 66Mb
Go 69Mb
C 77Mb
Fortran 82Mb
C++ 88Mb
“On average, the compiled languages needed 125Mb, the virtual machine languages needed 285Mb, and the interpreted needed 426Mb,” the researchers report. Meanwhile interpreted languages claimed four of the five bottom spots, meaning they consumed the most memory space: JRuby, Dart, Lua, and Perl. (While Erlang is not an interpreted language, it would also appear in the bottom five, between Dart and Lua).

“If sorted by their programming paradigm, the imperative languages needed 116Mb, the object-oriented 249Mb, the functional 251Mb, and finally the scripting needed 421Mb.”

In fact, when comparing the different paradigms, imperative programming often came out on top. Its benchmark programs also used far less energy on average — and ran much faster — than the benchmark programs for object-oriented, functional, and scripting paradigms.

Energy consumed Run-time
Imperative 125J 5585ms
Object-Oriented 879J 32965ms
Functional 1367J 42740ms
Scripting 2320J 88322 ms
But there’s a lot of factors to consider. “It is clear that different programming paradigms and even languages within the same paradigm have a completely different impact on energy consumption, time, and memory,” the researchers write. Yet which one of those is most important will depend on your scenario. (Background tasks, for example, don’t always need the fastest run-time..)

And some applications require the consideration of two factors — for example, energy usage and execution time. In that case, “C is the best solution, since it is dominant in both single objectives,” the researchers write. If you’re trying to save time while using less memory, C, Pascal, and Go “are equivalent” — and the same is true if you’re watching all three variables (time, energy use, and memory use). But if you’re just trying to save energy while using less memory, your best choices are C or Pascal.

Best languages for specific scenarios (screenshot from research paper)
At the end of the paper, the researchers add that for further study, they’d like to examine whether total memory use over time correlates better with energy consumed.

They’re sharing their data online, suggesting it makes it easier for future researchers to compare, for example, .NET languages or JVM languages. For developers working with mobile applications, Internet-of-Things systems, or other apps drawing from limited power supplies, power consumption is a major concern.

But in the end, the study may also leave programmers with the thing they hate most: ambiguity. The researchers report that if you’re looking for a single-best programming language, “this question does not have a concrete and ultimate answer.

“Although the most energy efficient language in each benchmark is almost always the fastest one, the fact is that there is no language which is consistently better than the others,” the researchers conclude. “The situation on which a language is going to be used is a core aspect to determine if that language is the most energy-efficient option.”


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DML Operationen und der Oracle Text Index

DML Operationen und der Oracle Text Index

Im Folgenden wollen wir die Möglichkeiten der Oracle Text Index-Maintenance in Verbindung mit DML-Operationen demonstrieren. Nehmen wir die Beispieltabelle und den Text Index aus dem ersten Blog als Grundlage. Der Inhalt der Dokumenttabelle sieht folgendermassen aus:

—- ———————————————————————
1 A-Partei gewinnt Wahl in Hansestadt
2 Terror in Nahost: Kriminalität steigt immer weiter an
3 Wirtschaft: Erneuter Gewinnzuwachs in diesem Jahr
4 Olympia rückt näher: Der Fackellauf ist in vollem Gange
5 Wer wird US-Präsident? Obama und Clinton machen Wahlkampf
6 Papst bestürzt über jüngsten Skandal!
7 Wahlkampf in den USA geht weiter: Clinton und Obama LIVE zu sehen
8 Software-Kenntnisse werden immer wichtiger
9 Umfrage: Alle wollen mehr Geld!
10 Der Papst liest seine erste Messe in den USA

Werden zusätzliche Dokumente in unsere Dokumenttabelle eingefügt, wird der Index nicht automatisch aktualisiert. Um den Index up-to-date zu haben, muss der Index synchronisiert werden. Dies kann man manuell mit der Prozedur CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX erreichen oder aber automatisch in periodischen Abständen in Verbindung mit dem DBMS_JOB oder ab 10g mit dem DBMS_SCHEDULER Paket. In 10g ist es nun zusätzlich möglich diese Operation ganz bequem beim CREATE INDEX oder dem ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS mitanzugeben.
In folgendem Beispiel wird der Sync-Scheduler-Job alle 5 Minuten durchgeführt; dabei wird 15MB Memory zur Verfügung gestellt und mit der Parallelisierung von 2 gearbeitet.
SQL> alter index idx_text rebuild parameters (‘replace metadata sync (every “SYSDATE+5/1440” parallel 2 memory 15M)’);
Nun fügen wir eine weitere Zeile ein und versuchen das Resultat zu selektieren:
SQL>insert into texttabelle values (seq_texttabelle.nextval, ‘Muppet-Show der Steuerversprecher’);
SQL>select * from texttabelle where contains(dokument, ‘Muppet’)>0;
no rows selected
Monitoring ist möglich über CTX_USER_PENDING View (oder ctxsys.dr$pending View):
SQL> select pnd_index_name,pnd_rowid,pnd_timestamp from ctx_user_pending;
————— ————————– ————–
IDX_TEXT AAAUYsAAEAABfg0AAK 16-05-08 09:21
Und nun das Ergebnis nach kurzer Wartezeit:
SQL>select * from texttabelle where contains(dokument, ‘Muppet’)>0;
—- ————————————————————
11 Muppet-Show der Steuerversprecher

Falls die Wartezeit bis zur Synchronisierung zu lange ist, hat man in 10g die Möglichkeit Intervalle zum COMMIT Zeitpunkt oder aber bzgl. der Transaktion zu wählen. Folgendes Beispiel zeigt den Einsatz der COMMIT Option:
SQL>alter index idx_text rebuild parameters (‘replace metadata sync (on commit)’);

SQL>insert into texttabelle values (seq_texttabelle.nextval, ‘Bahn-Aufsichtsrat macht Weg frei für Börsengang’);
SQL>select * from texttabelle where contains(dokument, ‘Weg’)>0;
no rows selected
SQL>select * from texttabelle where contains(dokument, ‘Weg’)>0;
— ————————————————————
12 Bahn- Aufsichtsrat macht Weg frei für Börsengang

Die COMMIT Option erlaubt allerdings keine zusätzlichen Memory- oder PARALLEL- Optionsangaben im Statement. Ausserdem könnte der Index durch häufiges COMMIT auch fragmentiert werden. Die zweite Option ist ein transaktionsbezogenes Intervall (auch transactional query genannt) auszuwählen. Der Index wird auch hier entweder mit CREATE INDEX oder folgendem ALTER INDEX REBUILD Statement erzeugt.
SQL>alter index idx_text rebuild parameters (‘replace metadata transactional’);

Das folgende Beispiel zeigt das Verhalten:
SQL>select count(*) from texttabelle where contains(dokument, ‘im all’)>0; — kein Treffer
SQL>insert into texttabelle values (seq_texttabelle.nextval, ‘Europäer im All’);
SQL>select * from ctxsys.dr$unindexed;
———- ———- ——————
SQL>select count(*) from texttabelle where contains(dokument, ‘im all’)>0; — 1 Treffer
SQL>select count(*) from texttabelle where contains(dokument, ‘im all’)>0; — kein Treffer
Und wie funktioniert das Ganze?
UPDATE und INSERT Statements eines transaktionalen Index werden wie beim normalen Index in der dr$pending View mitgeloggt. Zusätzlich dazu werden die ROWIDs in dr$unindexed mitgeschrieben. Während einer Abfrage wird jede ROWID in dr$unindexed mit den Ergebnissen aus der $I Tabelle evaluiert. Die Menge der ROWIDS von dr$unindexed wird mit dem Resultat der $I Tabelle kombiniert und liefert die Endresultate.
Transactional Queries ersetzen allerdings keinen SYNC-Prozess. Um zu verhindern, dass die Queries immer langsamer werden mit wachsender dr$unindexed Tabelle, ist es notwendig ein sinnvolles Intervall für den SYNC-Prozess einzustellen.
Und am Schluss noch ein kleiner Tipp: Benötigen einige Abfragen sofortige Ergebnisse bei der Suche und andere nicht, kann das Feature einfach ein- und ausgeschaltet werden mit:
SQL>exec ctx_query.disable_transactional_query := TRUE;

Viel Spass beim Ausprobieren …
Eingestellt von Ulrike Schwinn um 14:30
Labels: ALTER INDEX, dbms_ddl, Oracle text index, SYNC, transactional query

I Cut the ‘Big Five’ Tech Giants From My Life. It Was Hell

I Cut the ‘Big Five’ Tech Giants From My Life. It Was Hell

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Week 6: Blocking them all

A couple of months ago, I set out to answer the question of whether it’s possible to avoid the tech giants. Over the course of five weeks, I blocked Amazon, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Apple one at a time, to find out how to live in the modern age without each one.

To end my experiment, I’m going to see if I can survive blocking all five at once.

Not only am I boycotting their products, a technologist named Dhruv Mehrotra designed a special network tool that prevents my devices from communicating with the tech giants’ servers, meaning that ads and analytics from Google won’t work, Facebook can’t track me across the internet, and websites hosted by Amazon Web Services, or AWS, hypothetically won’t load.

I am using a Linux laptop made by a company named Purism and a Nokia feature phone on which I am relearning the lost art of T9 texting.


I needed A LOT of stuff to replace my usual tech giant devices
Photo: Myra Iqbal
I don’t think I could have done this cold turkey. I needed to wean myself off various services in the lead-up, like an alcoholic going through the 12 steps. The tech giants, while troubling in their accumulation of data, power, and societal control, do offer services that make our lives a hell of a lot easier.

Earlier in the experiment, for example, I realized I don’t know how to get in touch with people without the tech giants. Google, Apple, and Facebook provide my rolling Rolodex.

So in preparation for the week, I export all my contacts from Google, which amounts to a shocking 8,000 people. I have also whittled down the over 1,500 contacts in my iPhone to 143 people for my Nokia, or the number of people I actually talk to on a regular basis, which is incredibly close to Dunbar’s number.

I wind up placing a lot of phone calls this week, because texting is so annoying on the Nokia’s numbers-based keyboard. I find people often pick up on the first ring out of concern; they’re not used to getting calls from me.

I don’t think I could have done this cold turkey.

On the first day of the block, I drive to work in silence because my rented Ford Fusion’s “SYNC” entertainment system is powered by Microsoft. Background noise in general disappears this week because YouTube, Apple Music, and our Echo are all banned—as are Netflix, Spotify, and Hulu, because they rely on AWS and the Google Cloud to get their content to users.

The silence causes my mind to wander more than usual. Sometimes this leads to ideas for my half-finished zombie novel or inspires a new question for investigation. But more often than not, I dwell on things I need to do.

Many of these things are a lot more challenging as a result of the experiment, such as when I record an interview with Alex Goldman of the podcast Reply All about Facebook and its privacy problems.

I live in California, and Alex is in New York; we would normally use Skype, but that’s owned by Microsoft, so instead we talk by phone and I record my end with a handheld Zoom recorder. That works fine, but when it comes time to send the 386 MB audio file to Alex, I realize I have no idea how to send a huge file over the internet.

My Gmail alternatives—ProtonMail and Riseup—tell me the file is too large; they tap out at 25 MB. Google Drive and Dropbox aren’t options, Dropbox because it’s hosted by Amazon’s AWS and relies on Google for sign-in. Other file-sharing sites also rely on the tech giants for web hosting services.

Before resorting to putting the file on a thumb drive and dropping it in a IRL mailbox, I call up my tech freedom guru, Sean O’Brien, who heads Yale Law School’s Privacy Lab. He also does marketing work for Purism, the company that makes my laptop. O’Brien tries to avoid tech giants in favor of open source technologies, so I figure he might be able to help.


O’Brien directs me first to Send.Firefox.com, an encrypted file-sharing service operated by Mozilla. But… it uses the Google Cloud, so it won’t load. O’Brien then sends me to Share.Riseup.net, a file-sharing service from the same radical tech collective that is hosting my personal email, but it only works for files up to 50 MB.

O’Brien’s last suggestion is Onionshare, a tool for sharing files privately via the “dark web,” i.e. the part of the web that’s not crawled by Google and requires the Tor browser to get to. I know this one actually. My friend Micah Lee, a technologist for the Intercept, made it. Unfortunately, when I go to Onionshare.org to download it, the website won’t load.

“Hah, yes,” emails Micah when I ask about it. “Right now it’s hosted by AWS.”

As I encountered at the beginning of this experiment, Amazon’s most profitable business isn’t retail; it’s web hosting. Countless apps and websites rely on the digital infrastructure provided by AWS, and none of them are working for me this week.

Micah suggests I download it from Github, but that’s owned by Microsoft. Thankfully, O’Brien tells me I can download the Onionshare program directly from Micah’s server via command line on my Linux computer. He has to walk me through it step-by-step, but it works. I’m able to run Onionshare, drop my file into it, creating a temporary onion site; I send the URL for the onionsite to Alex so he can download it via the Tor browser. Once he downloads it, I tell Onionshare to “stop sharing,” which takes the onion site down, erasing the file from the web.

(In the end, Alex doesn’t even wind up using my audio for Reply All’s year-end finale. Sigh.)


I realize that’s a long story about sharing one file, but it’s a nice summation of what online tasks are like this week. There are workarounds for services offered by the tech giants, but they take extra research to find and are often more difficult to use. I wind up in strange parts of the internet, using Ask.com (formerly known as Ask Jeeves) as my search engine, for example, after I ixnay Google.com and realize DuckDuckGo is hosted by AWS.

But Ask.com is not necessarily a great replacement: it’s owned by IAC, the media and dating company behemoth. I’ve just traded one huge corporation seeking to monetize my searches for another, less competent one.

Some strange things are delightful: I discover that my Nokia phone can play the radio, so when I go running, I listen to NPR instead of my usual go-tos: Spotify, a podcast, or an audiobook. I’m planning a trip to South Africa, and wind up in charming conversations with the travel agents I have to call for help; it’s more costly and less efficient to book via a travel agency, but it’s the only option because travel-booking websites aren’t working for me.

My mother-in-law was not impressed with the Nokia’s photos
Screenshot: Maureen Taravella
Something not delightful is my Nokia 3310’s camera; it takes terrible, dark photos. I have an old Canon point-and-shoot digital camera, but I find I don’t take many photos this week—because without Facebook and Instagram, I don’t have anywhere to share them.

These phones are the nicotine patch for smartphone addiction.

Sometimes I just can’t find a digital replacement. Venmo won’t work without a smartphone, so I pay our babysitter in cash. I start using a physical calendar to keep track of my schedule. When it comes to getting around, Marble Maps is an option, but I’m confused by the interface, so I stick to places I know, and buy a physical map as a back-up.

“It’s funny because Nokia used to have amazing navigation with Navtech,” a technologist says to me one day when I’m talking about how hard driving is without mapping apps, “but then they sold themselves to Microsoft.”

Fuck, I think, my Nokia 3310 might be made by Microsoft.

But it turns out, while Microsoft did buy Nokia’s mobile devices division for $7.2 billion in 2014, it sold Nokia’s “feature phone assets” two years later for a painful write-down, $350 million, to Foxconn (of Apple outsourcing fame) and to HMD Global, a Finnish firm helmed by a former Nokia executive. HMD Global now uses Nokia’s “intellectual property,” i.e. brand, to sell phones. Most “Nokia” phones are Android smartphones, but there’s a line of “classic” phones, including the 3310, which run an operating system called FeatureOS made by Foxconn.

My Nokia 3310 is not a tech giant phone, but it’s certainly tech giant adjacent.

To find out why the HMD Global is still selling dumbphones, I call its Hong Kong-based chief product officer, Juho Sarvikas. Sarvikas tells me that the company thought the core market for “classic” phones would be in Asia and Africa, where smartphones are less prevalent, but he says the devices have done surprisingly well in America.


“Digital well-being is a concrete area now,” he says. “When you want to go into detox mode or if you want to be less connected, we want to be the company that has the toolkit for you.”

“So these phones are the nicotine patch for smartphone addiction,” I say.

He laughs, “I’ve never put it that way before, but yes.”

I had assumed that the phones were for parents who wanted their kids to have phones sans a pipeline to social media and apps.

“That too,” says Sarvikas.

Many people I talk to about this experiment liken it to digital veganism. Digital vegans reject certain technology services as unethical; they discriminate about the products they use and the data they consume and share, because information is power, and increasingly a handful of companies seem to have it all.


He refers to joining social networks as being “bait” that lures other people into “surveillance traps.”
When I meet a full-time practitioner of the lifestyle, Daniel Kahn Gillmor, a technologist at the ACLU, I’m not totally surprised to discover he’s an actual vegan. I am surprised by the lengths to which he’s gone to avoid the tech giants: he doesn’t have a cellphone and prefers to pay for things with cash.

“My main concern is people being able to lead autonomous healthy lives that they have control over,” Gillmor tells me during a chat via Jitsi, an open-source video-conferencing service that will work on any web browser. There’s no proprietary app you have to download and it doesn’t require you to create an account.

Daniel Kahn GIllmor—ACLU technologist, digital vegan, and real vegan
Photo: Santiago Garcia
Gillmor hosts his own email and avoids most social media networks (he makes exceptions for Github and Sourceforge, because he’s an open source developer who wants to share his code with others). He refers to joining social networks as being “bait” that lures other people into “surveillance traps.”

Gillmor thinks people will have better lives if they aren’t being data-mined and monetized by companies that increasingly control the flow of information.


“I have the capacity to make this choice. I know a lot of people would like to sign off but can’t for financial reasons or practical reasons,” he tells me. “I don’t want to come across as chastising people who don’t make this choice.”

And there are definitely costs to the choice. “How things are structured determines the decisions people can make socially,” he says. “Like you didn’t get invited to a party [via Facebook] because you chose not to be part of a surveillance economy.”

Gillmor teaches digital hygiene classes where he tries to get people to think about their privacy and security. He usually starts the class by asking people if they know when their phones are communicating with cell towers. “Most people say, ‘When I use it,’ but the answer is, ‘anytime it’s on,’” he says.

He wants people to think about their own data trails but also when they are creating data trails for other people, such as when a person uploads their contacts to a technology service—sharing information with the service that those contacts might not want shared.

“Once the data is out there, it can be misused in ways we don’t expect,” he says.

But he thinks it’s going to take more than actions by individuals. “We need to think of this as a collective action problem similar to how we think about the environment,” he says. “Our society is structured so that a lot of people are trapped. If you have to fill out your timesheet with an app only available on iPhone or Android, you better have one of those to get paid.”


Gillmor wants lawmakers to step in, but he also thinks it can be addressed technologically, by pushing for interoperable systems like we have for phone numbers and email. You can call anyone; you don’t need to use the same phone carrier as them. And you can take your phone number to a different carrier if you want (thanks to lawmaker intervention).

When companies can’t lock us into proprietary ecosystems, we have more freedom. But that means Facebook would have to let a Pinterest user RSVP for an event on its site. And Apple would need to let you Facetime an Android user.

No one wants to give the keys out when they have customer lock-in.

The Amazon block continues to be the most challenging one for me.

My friend Katie is in town from New York; we have plans to meet for dinner one night at a restaurant near my house, an event marked on my physical calendar. On the morning we are to meet, I get an email from her to my Riseup account with the subject line, “What is happening.”

Katie had been sending me messages for days via Signal, but I hadn’t gotten them because Signal is hosted by AWS. When she didn’t hear from me, she sent an “ARE YOU GETTING MY TEXTS” email to Gmail, and got my away message directing her to my Riseup account.


I tell her dinner is still a go, but it’s a reminder of the costs of leaving these services. I can opt out, but people might not realize I’ve left, or might forget, even if they do know.

One day, I ask my husband, Trevor, who declined to do the block with me because he has “a real job,” what the hardest part of my experiment is for him. “I never know if you’re going to respond to my texts,” he says.

“What do you mean?” I ask. “What have I not responded to?

“I sent you some messages on Signal,” Trevor says, having forgotten I am off it.

The block provides constant conversation fodder, and I find myself in conversations more often because, at social gatherings, I don’t have a smartphone to stare at.


An Ivy League professor tells me he regularly employs a Google blocker. “I had to disable it when I paid my taxes because they have Google Analytics on the IRS website,” he says. “It was kind of horrifying.”

People under 35 are intrigued (and sometimes jealous) of life without a smartphone; people over 35 just seem nostalgic.

One night, I run into Internet Archive founder Brewster Kahle, who is delighted to hear about the block. “It’s hard to get away from technology,” he says. “A friend was just telling me about trying to get a TV that wasn’t smart and didn’t have a microphone. It was impossible. He wound up getting a 27-inch [computer] monitor.”

Sometimes we make the choice to bring technology into our lives, but sometimes it’s forced upon us. Television makers have turned their products into surveillance machines that collect what we watch and what we don’t watch and sometimes even what we say, and that’s just how most TVs come now.

This week, I stop watching TV altogether because we don’t have cable and internet TV isn’t an option. I hadn’t meant to make this experiment a “rejection of all technology”—but it happens despite my intentions.

I’m most frustrated by this with my phone. I would love to be using a tech-giant free smartphone, but they aren’t really commercially available yet. If you want one, you need to be technically savvy and install a custom operating system on special phone models. That will hopefully change soon, with commercial offerings on the horizon from Eelo and Purism.


In the past, I would have assumed that idealistic projects like these were doomed, but there seems to be a heightened awareness these days of the dystopia created by the tech giants. Everywhere I look, I see criticism of the Frightful Five.

“Are America’s technology companies serving as instruments of freedom or instruments of control?”
A writer I know pens an op-ed in the New York Times: “Hate Amazon? Try living without it.” (She didn’t actually live without it.) A CNBC tech reporter reveals she gave up Facebook and Instagram for three months and that it “made her a lot happier.” A CBS reporter tries and fails to quit Google. A Vice writer gives all the giants up for a month (but not as rigorously as I did). The New York Times writes about apps tracking people’s locations with horrifying regularity and granularity.

The tech giants laid down all the basic infrastructure for our data to be trafficked. They got us to put our information into public profiles, to carry tracking devices in our pockets, and to download apps to those tracking devices that secretly siphon data from them.

“Are America’s technology companies serving as instruments of freedom or instruments of control?” asks a Californian politician.

It’s in the air. The tech giants were long revered for making the world more connected, making information more accessible, and making commerce easier and cheaper. Now, suddenly, they are the targets of anger for assisting the spread of propaganda and misinformation, making us dangerously dependent on their services, and turning our personal information into the currency of a surveillance economy.


The world is flawed, and, fairly or not, the tech titans are increasingly being blamed.

A new book about “surveillance capitalism” by Harvard Business School professor Shoshana Zuboff argues that the extreme mining and manipulation of our data for profit is making an inescapable panopticon the driver of our economy.

Zuboff’s publicist sent me an advance copy as an e-book, and I’ve really been enjoying it, but I have to put it down this week because I can’t read it on my Kindle. Instead, I’m reading a physical book—Henry Thoreau’s Walden, which I ordered from Barnes & Noble. It too is full of calls to re-immerse ourselves in the natural world and not get too caught up in the distractions of modern life.

But, because it was published in 1854, it warns people to get away from work and newspapers rather than smart devices and screens.

For ideas about what the government can do about all this, I call Lina Khan, a fellow at the Open Markets Institute who wrote a blockbuster paper on the need to regulate Amazon’s monopoly power. (At least it’s a blockbuster by academic standards.)

“If users had been told that the price for access would be near-total surveillance, would they have agreed?”

Khan is in New York doing an academic fellowship at Columbia University where she is working on more papers. Khan doesn’t have a Prime account and avoids Gmail. Right before I call her, I see a tweet from a video producer at the Washington Post who got bombarded with baby ads after she had a stillborn delivery.

“Please, Tech Companies, I implore you: If your algorithms are smart enough to realize that I was pregnant, or that I’ve given birth, then surely they can be smart enough to realize that my baby died, and advertise to me accordingly — or maybe, just maybe, not at all,” she wrote in yet another reminder that privacy invasions have real harms.

I recount the story to Khan at the beginning of our call and say that this type of anger seems to be on the rise.

Lina Khan and author having a Skype call (after the experiment ended)
Screenshot: Kashmir Hill
“The tech companies’ own actions are prompting the tide to turn. It is a belated reckoning, but it seems to be a reckoning nonetheless,” she says. “Companies started monetizing user data far before most users even realized their data was valuable, let alone being collected by private actors. If users had been told that the price for access would be near-total surveillance, would they have agreed? Would companies have been forced to offer different business models?”

Khan thinks law enforcers need to get involved to keep these companies from using anti-competitive tactics to dominate the business landscape, as public officials did in the ‘90s against Microsoft.


“Several of the big tech firms have acquired rivals and inhibited competitors through predatory conduct,” she says, a topic that’s been in the news recently with the exposure of Facebook emails where CEO Mark Zuckerberg talks about cutting off then-viral video service Vine’s access to the Facebook social graph. “They have engaged in practices that, a few decades ago, were widely considered monopolistic. We need investigations by the Department of Justice, the Federal Trade Commission, or state attorneys general.”

Europe is on the case, its regulators fining Google and saying Facebook can’t combine users’ data from Facebook, WhatsApp, and Instagram without their consent. But antitrust regulators in the U.S. have stayed away from these companies because their services are cheap or free, so they’re perceived as pro-consumer, which is ultimately what regulators want to encourage. But how does that work when the “consumer” is what the company is selling?

An uncomfortable idea I keep coming up against this week is that, if we want to get away from monopolies and surveillance economies, we might need to rethink the assumption that everything on the internet should be free.

So when I try to create a fourth folder in ProtonMail to organize my email and it tells me that I need to upgrade from a free to a premium account to do so, I decide to fork over 48 euros (about $50) for the year. In return, I get a 5 GB email account that doesn’t have its contents scanned and monetized.

However, I’m well aware that not everyone has $50 dollars to spare for something that they can easily get for “free,” so if that’s the way things go, the rich will have privacy online and the poor (and most vulnerable) will have their data exploited.

The previous week, my 1-year-old, Ellev, started saying that Alexa is “scary” and “spooky,” concepts she learned while trick-or-treating. It’s not unreasonable; I can see how a disembodied voice that’s always there and always listening would be disconcerting to a toddler—or really any normal human being.


But this week, she keeps crying for Alexa, wanting her to play “Baby shark” and other music that is otherwise absent from our home. “I miss Alexa,” she says, and I feel terrible both for depriving her and for making her dependent on an AI at such a young age.

On the last day of the block, Trevor and I are flying to New York, and he’s begging me to end the experiment early so we can use the iPad to keep Ellev happy. However, I’m adamant about maintaining the blockade for the six-hour flight.

“I’m changing my seat to a different part of the plane,” Trevor warns, kiddingly.

Trevor charges the iPad up in case my will falters. But I hold strong. We read books with Ellev, doodle on a magnetic drawing board, sing songs, and play for at least an hour with sticky, flexible “Wizzle sticks” that come in her Alaska Airlines snack pack. She sleeps for the last hour and a half of the flight, something she doesn’t usually do if there is an iPad available.

That was Ellev’s 26th flight. In the taxi after we land, Trevor turns to me and says, “That’s the easiest flight we’ve ever had with her.”

We get to our Airbnb in Brooklyn, which I booked months before the experiment. (It should technically be banned because Airbnb is hosted by AWS.) There’s a lock box on the outside of the apartment building that I open with a four-digit code. Inside is a key that gets us into the building and the same four-digit code opens a digital lock on the apartment’s door. I had written down the address and code on a piece of paper knowing I wouldn’t be able to access the Airbnb website.


Technology creates the problems that technology solves.
We get in with no problem. We’re starving so head to a restaurant we passed in our taxi. Afterward, we need groceries, but Ellev is melting down, so I head to the Airbnb while Trevor goes to shop. I get into the building with the key, but once Ellev and I climb four flights of stairs to the apartment, I realize I don’t have the piece of paper with the door code on it—and I don’t remember the code.

Ellev is crying and trying to turn the doorknob. I start to feel that desperate panic of an earlier age that nowadays accompanies a dying smartphone battery.

My laptop is inside the locked apartment. I use a password manager, stored on that laptop, to get into all my online accounts, so I couldn’t get into Airbnb on another computer even if I wanted to toss in the towel on the blockade.

A masochistic part of my brain reminds me that I am in this mess because I used a site hosted by AWS. I could have just booked a normal hotel room via the phone, and then I would be picking up a new key card at this very moment. Technology creates the problems that technology solves, and vice versa.

While soothing Ellev, I try a bunch of different combinations on the lock based on my vague recollection of what the four numbers are. One of them works. As soon as I get inside, I plug my iPhone into the charger, relieved I’ll resume using it the next day.


Critics of the big tech companies are often told, “If you don’t like the company, don’t use its products.” I did this experiment to find out if that is possible, and I found out that it’s not—with the exception of Apple.

Graphic: Jim Cooke (Gizmodo)
These companies are unavoidable because they control internet infrastructure, online commerce, and information flows. Many of them specialize in tracking you around the web, whether you use their products or not. These companies started out selling books, offering search results, or showcasing college hotties, but they have expanded enormously and now touch almost every online interaction. These companies look a lot like modern monopolies.

Since the experiment ended, I’ve resumed using the tech giants’ services, but I use them less. I deliberately seek out alternatives to do what I can, as a consumer, not to help them monopolize the market.

I want to embrace a lifestyle of “slow Internet.”
But the experiment went beyond that for me; it made me reexamine the role of tech in my life more widely. It broke me of that modern bad habit of swiping through my phone looking for a distraction rather than engaging with the people around me or seeking stimulation in my real world environment.


I deleted time-wasting apps like Words With Friends and a Hearts app. I look at Instagram less often, such that I see friends have tagged me in their stories, but don’t see the stories because they’ve already reached their 24-hour expiration mark.

I turn my phone off around 9pm each night and don’t turn it back on until I really need it the next day. It took two weeks of using my “nicotine patch” dumb phone, but I eventually lost the urge to start my day by reaching for my smartphone on the bedside table.

My iPhone tells me in my weekly “Screentime” reports that my usage is down significantly, to under 2 hours per day. My phone feels less like an appendage and more like a tool I use when necessary. I still love using Google Maps or Waze when I’m driving to an unfamiliar place, texting far-away friends and family members, and sharing a beautiful photo on Instagram—but I have regained the ability to put my phone away.

I went through the digital equivalent of a juice cleanse. I hope I’m better than most dieters at staying healthy afterward, but I don’t want to be a digital vegan. I want to embrace a lifestyle of “slow Internet,” to be more discriminating about the technology I let into my life and think about the motives of the companies behind it. The tech giants are reshaping the world in good and bad ways; we can take the good and reject the bad.

I ask Trevor if he notices anything different about me since the experiment.

“You never know what time it is anymore,” he jokes, but it’s true. I look at my phone infrequently and there are rarely clocks around, personal devices apparently having made them obsolete. I am more in the moment, but less aware of the actual hour and minute.


This is easily solvable: I’ll get a watch. It definitely won’t be a smart one.


The Goodbye Big Five series was brought to you by:

Reporter: Kashmir Hill (and her family)

Video Producer: Myra Iqbal

Editors: Andrew Couts, Tim Marchman, Kelly Bourdet


The Video Team: Danielle Steinberg, Ben Reininga, Santiago Garcia

The Art Team: Jim Cooke, Therese McPherson

Video Animator: Dominic Elsey

Technologist: Dhruv Mehrotra, whose work was supported by a grant from the Eyebeam Center for the Future of Journalism

Goodbye Big Five
Reporter Kashmir Hill spent six weeks blocking Amazon, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Apple from getting her money, data, and attention, using a custom-built VPN. Here’s what happened.
Life Without the Tech Giants
I Tried to Block Amazon From My Life. It Was Impossible
I Cut Facebook Out of My Life. Surprisingly, I Missed It
I Cut Google Out Of My Life. It Screwed Up Everything
I Cut Microsoft Out of My Life—or So I Thought
I Cut Apple Out of My Life. It Was Devastating
Kashmir Hill
Kashmir Hill is the deputy editor for the Special Projects Desk, which produces investigative work across all of Gizmodo Media Group’s web sites. She writes about privacy and technology.

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Jeff Smith, product manager at Oracle

Jeff Smith, product manager at Oracle

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About Me
My job title is ‘Senior Principal Product Manager’ at Oracle Corp, but for this portal, you can consider me a database productivity and tools advocate.

My primary goal is to help you save time when working with Oracle Database. If I can ALSO make what you’re currently doing a little more fun, then that’s a big bonus for me.


Legal Disclaimers and Such
My blogs and on-line content come from me, and only me. I am not an official spokesperson for my employer, Oracle Corp, nor do I speak on behalf of Oracle.

My Elevator Pitch/CV

R&D, Support, PreSales, Product Marketing & Management… Yes.
Regularly present at Oracle Open World, ODTUG KScope, RMOUG, and local user groups around the world from Norway to New Zealand
blogger, tweeter, YouTuber, author, StackOverflow, podcaster…I go where our users are to help them.
my first Oracle database version was 7.3 & 8.0.6 (in case Tom is asking)
That’s me in last place 🙂
That’s me in last place 🙂
Who am I, really?
Yes, Jeff Smith is my real name. I’m ‘that‘ crazy database guy. I’m a proud father of two and husband to an awesome wife. A software and database geek by trade, I call the Raleigh/Durham metropolitan area home. I was born and raised in West Virginia, and I’m a reformed hillbilly.

I have a dry sense of humor. If you can’t tell if I am joking or not, then assume I am joking.

I have worked for independent software vendors since 1999. For the past 17 years I’ve been working on and around database software tools. It’s a pretty narrow specialization, but I dig it.

I’m currently a Product Manager for Oracle, working on the SQL Developer team. My true passion lies in helping people maximize their productivity and retain sanity while working with database development and administration tools.

You will find regular tips and tricks posted here showing you how to get more and expect more from your experience with the Oracle database. SQL Developer and its related products will be the primary vehicle for getting to your Oracle nirvana. I am a productivity freak. My focus is figuring out how to attack tasks in the least amount of steps, clicks, or keystrokes. I will show you how to save time, and hopefully have a little bit of fun in the process.

Here’s a free sample…

Oracle SQL Developer Tips & Tricks from Jeff Smith

What the heck is the ‘That’ stuff about?
Several years ago I was twittering and hanging out online under a different persona. It wasn’t really personal, and it tied me to something that wasn’t completely ‘me.’ A very smart group of folks, including Andy Grant and Brent Ozar convinced me that I should develop my own brand. In other words, I should make ‘Jeff Smith’ a household name in the database world. Or at least try.


‘Jeff Smith’ is one of the most generic names of all time, at least in English speaking countries. Security folks even joke with me about it being my ‘real name.’ One time while browsing at JC Penny, I looked at a wallet, and the fake ID included was ‘Jeff Smith.’ Awesome.

Not to mention there’s a comic book writer, cook, disgraced senator, used car dealer, and all sorts of more (in)famous people that will always rank higher on Google than me. So, in a stroke of sarcastic brilliance, I came up with being ‘oh, THAT Jeff Smith.’

My wife hates it immensely. At least 3 of my co-workers took to calling me that by name – as a sign of respect I am sure – and I’m not in love with it either. But there it is, and here you are. And now you know, the rest of my story.

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Der beste Werbeblocker for Android. Kostenlos und Open Source

Der beste Werbeblocker for Android. Kostenlos und Open Source

So, how does Blokada work?
To put it simply, Blokada generates a Virtual Private Network, a VPN, on your phone, and through the use of that VPN it filters traffic against hosts lists that contain hosts that are known as ad hosts. Also, it provides alternate DNS, so eventually that traffic will be resolved with the use of those DNS.

Basically two parts: first through the use a VPN all traffic is checked against a host list that contain ad delivery hosts; the second part is the host list itself, which is automatically updated within Blokada from known hosts list (like AdZHosts). A third component is the alternate DNS option provided by Blokada, but we’re not going to get into it now.

To get things clear, DNS stands for “Domain Name Server” and/or Domain Name System, and while it’s much more complex than these few words, for the purpose of this short article we’re going to say that it is the system by which an URL is converted to an IP address, or, how your phone finally knows which IP is http://www.google.com. Blokada allows to use other DNS different from the system DNS, but by default the DNS used is the system DNS.

Blog: At these coordinates

Blog: At these coordinates

Dispatches from the Geospatial Data World
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frankcal2Frank launched At These Coordinates in September 2017 in order to get a fresh start with blogging; previously he had run Gothos: A Geospatial Librarian’s World at gothos.info since 2008. At These Coordinates covers topics related to geospatial data: any data that can be tied to location and place. Posts cover topics like geographic information systems (GIS), spatial databases, scripting, census data, data sources, and maps of course.

Frank is the Geospatial Data Librarian at Baruch College, City University of New York (CUNY) in midtown Manhattan where he helps members of his college and university to navigate geospatial and census data sources. He manages the GIS Lab in the library where he and his grad students: provide research consultations, teach workshops, process data, and maintain a repository of GIS data. Frank has been using GIS for twenty years and was an early proponent of free and open source GIS software in academia. His FOSS stack includes QGIS, GRASS, PostGIS, Spatialite, and Python.

A native Delawarean with roots in Philadelphia, he and his wife currently live at the very northern tip of Manhattan. You’ll find him there guzzling coffee, listening to his collection of vinyl, reading books that cover anything from medieval history to hard-boiled crime fiction, and roaming the paths and hills of Inwood Park.

Frank Donnelly’s C.V.

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Extracting OpenStreetMap Data in QGIS 3 February 11, 2019
Place Names: Comparing Two Global Gazetteers January 24, 2019
Mapping US Census Data on Internet Access December 21, 2018
Measuring Polygon Overlap in QGIS and PostGIS November 26, 2018
Exploring New Worlds in Factorio October 23, 2018
Using the ACS to Calculate Daytime Population September 25, 2018
Lying with Maps and Census Data August 20, 2018
Business and Labor Force Data: The Census and the BLS July 24, 2018
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Hi there! Thanks for stopping by!

Math3ma was originally created as a tool to help me transition from undergraduate to graduate level mathematics. Quite often, I’d find that the ideas of math are hidden behind a dense fog of formalities and technical jargon. Much of my transition process was (and still is!) learning how to fight through this fog in order to clearly see the ideas, concepts, and notions which lie beneath. Throughout this process I learned that writing —and drawing! —helps immensely. Eventually I decided to share my writings and doodles on the web in hopes that others may find them helpful as well.

My name is Tai-Danae Bradley. (It’s nice to meet you!) I’m a PhD candidate in mathematics at the CUNY Graduate Center. My advisor is John Terilla, and my research interests include category theory and quantum physics. Recently, I wrote a little booklet called What is Applied Category Theory? It’s now free on the arXiv!