Pine64 Single Board Computer

Pine64 Single Board Computer

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64-bit Single Board Computer

Frequently Asked Questions
Here are some of the most frequently asked questions regarding the PINE64. If you don’t see your question here, please visit Pine64 forum,, for more info. Thank You!

What is Single Board Computer?
A single-board computer (SBC) is a complete computer built on a single circuit board with microprocessor(s), memory, input/output (I/O) and other features required for a functional computer. SBC were made as demonstration or development systems, for educational systems, or for use as embedded computer controllers. Many types of home computer and portable computer integrated all their functions onto a single printed circuit board.

What is Pine A64?
The Pine A64 is an index card sized 64-bit single board computer. It can perform like your desktop or portable PC with browsing the Internet, playing games, watching video, and execute programs like spreadsheets and word-processing. The Pine A64 board can also play ultra high definition 4Kx2K video.

Why 64-bit processors really matters?
The ARM 64-bit processor significantly increases performance over its 32-bit counterpart. Besides the performance increase, the 64-bit processor is more power efficient and consumes less energy.

How powerful is Pine A64 CPU processors?
The Pine A64 CPU is quad-core ARM A-53 64-bit processor and runs at 1.2GHz. The CPU’s MIPS benchmarks around 11,040 which makes it capabilities roughly equivalent to the Sony PS3’s level of performance or a netbook running AMD E-240 CPU at 1.5GHz.

How powerful is Pine A64 GPU processors?
The Pine A64 GPU is dual-core MALI-400 MP2 and runs at 500MHz, capable of 1.1 Gpixel/s throughput. Graphics capabilities are slightly higher than the original Xbox’s level of performance. The GPU provides OpenGL ES 2.0, hardware-accelerated OpenVG, 4Kx2Kp30 H.265 decode, and 1080p60 H.264 high-profile encode and decode.

Does Pine A64 board need a heatsink?
The SoC chip used in the Pine A64 is the same SoC design that is used in a tablet. Heatsink requirement will directly influenced by each application and case design.

What type of hardware interfaces that Pine A64 have?
Depending on the model, all the Pine A64 has 46 dedicated GPIO pins, three UART, two i2c bus, two SPI bus, i2s audio, SPDIF out, IR receiver, Speaker out, 3v3, 5v, and ground. In the “PLUS” model, there are additional three ports: CSI-Camera, Touch Control, and DSI-LCD Panel.

Can I add additional system memory?

What is Pine A64 operating temperature?
The Pine A64 operating temperature qualified range from -20°C to 70°C.

What is the difference between “BASIC” and “PLUS” model?
Two models are available: Pine A64 “BASIC” and the Pine A64+ “PLUS.” The “BASIC” model is the low-cost variant of the Pine A64 board. It has 512MB system RAM and 10/100 Mbps Ethernet port. The Pine A64+ “PLUS” model has 1GB system RAM, Gigabit Ethernet port, camera port, LCD panel display port, and touch control port. For Android users, we strongly recommend the Pine A64+ “PLUS” model due to the larger system memory size and for a better user experience.

Can I connect a keyboard and mouse to the Pine A64 and act as a computer?
Yes, most existing USB keyboard and mouse can work with the Pine A64 board.

What are the Pine A64 dimensions? What about the weight?
The Pine A64 board measures 127mm x 79mm x 21mm (or roughly 5.00″ x 3.11″ x 0.83″) at 46 grams.

Which SoC are used in the Pine A64 boards?
Both BASIC and PLUS model uses the Allwinner A64 SoC. The SoC contains a quad-core ARM Cortex A53 64-bit CPU with floating point, running at 1.2Ghz, and a dual-core MALI-400 MP2 GPU running at 500MHz. The GPU has a high performance 3D core accessed using the supplied OpenGL ES2.0 and OpenVG libraries.

Why use the Allwinner A64 SoC?
Cost, performance and reliability.

How does the Pine A64 boot?
With the microSD card inserted in the card slot, all files necessary for booting should be installed in a microSD card with FAT32 partition.

What operating systems do the Pine A64 board support?
Android Lollipop 5.1 or Ubuntu with Kernel 3.10 are available for you. Both comes with 64-bit version. For Android users, we recommend using Pine A64+ “PLUS” boards which has a larger system memory. In addition, we also work with openHAB ( for IoT (Internet of Things) application. The OS is stored on the microSD card; it is a straightforward process to replace the root partition on the microSD card with another ARM Linux.

Will the Pine A64 run Microsoft Windows or Windows RT OS?
No but we are working on it. Check back here frequently for updates.

Which Linux runs on the Pine A64 board?
Ubuntu and Debian runs on the Pine A64 board.

Can the Pine A64 run Android?
Yes, Android Lollipop 5.1 64-bit OS runs natively in Pine A64 board. We strongly advise you run Android on Pine A64+ “PLUS” model due to the larger system memory size for a better user experience.

What is the power requirement?
The board is powered by +5v microUSB port. Exactly how much power is required, in terms of current. (mA), is depending on what you hook up to the board. An official 2.0A (2000mA) power supply is available at the Pine64 store with ample power to run the board for most applications.

What is size of the microSD card I need?
For Linux OS, the minimum microSD size can be as low as 4GB. For Android OS, we recommend no less than 8GB. Besides OS space requirement, please also calculate the free space you need to install additional packages or make programs/data of your own.

What capacity of the microSD card can the Pine A64 support?
The Pine A64 board supports SD, SDHC, and SDXC format microSD card – this means the largest capacity is 256GB. Please note that if a microSD card is formatted as an FAT32 file format, the maximum capacity is 32GB.

How about support for other storage devices?
You can also attach a USB stick or USB hard drive to provide extra storage.

What happens when the Pine A64 board brick?
Just simply restore the Pine A64 board by re-flashing the microSD card.

Does the Pine A64 support networking?
The “BASIC” model has built in 10/100Mbps wired Ethernet and “PLUS” model has built in Gigabit wired Ethernet. There is a Wi-Fi and Bluetooth native expansion port on both models.

Is there wireless expansion for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth?
Yes, the Pine A64 has the reserved expansion port for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. The various Wi-Fi and Bluetooth daughter boards are available at Pine64 store (

Is sounds supported through HDMI?

Is sounds supported through SPDIF?
Yes it is through the output port located at the “euler“ bus connector.

Is there a mic port on the Pine A64?
The Pine A64 audio 3.5mm mini-jack supports microphone function from your headphones. A USB webcam with microphones function also another solution.

What about standard audio in and out?
The Pine A64 audio 3.5mm mini-jack supplies amplified audio output to your headphone; you can also use as audio line out. You can add USB microphone support devices, such as webcam for audio in, or using the I2S interface on the “euler” bus connector for additional audio I/O function.

What display monitor can I use?
There is an HDMI port on the Pine A64 board, and you can hook up to a HDMI monitor or HDTV. For the DVI monitor connection, a passive HDMI->DVI adapter is needed. There is no VGA nor Composite Video support on the Pine A64 board, but such active HDMI->VGA or HDMI->Composite Video converter is available and can be purchased directly at the Pine64 store (

Can I stream Netflix?
Yes! Pine64 can run Nextflix in SD video.

Which HDMI version is supported?
Version 1.

What are the video specifications supported by the Pine A64 board?
•H.265 4K@30fps video decoding
•multi-format 1080p@60fps video decoding, including H.264 BP/MP/HP, VP8, MPEG 1, MPEG2, MPEG4 SP/ASP GMC, H.263 including Sorenson Spark, VC1/WMV9, MJPEG and etc.
•H.264 1080p@60fps or 720p@120fps video encoding

What is the DSI port?
The LCD Panel port is a 4 lane MIPI DSI up to 1920×1200@60fps. It provides connectivity to an LCD panel and turns the Pine A64 into a computer or tablet.

What model of the LCD panel is compatible for the Pine A64?
We currently offer a 7 inch color active matrix 1024 x 600 LCD panel with 24 chip LED backlight.

What is a Camera Card?
The Camera Card is a small PCB that connects to the CSI camera port on the Pine A64 using a short ribbon cable. It provides connectivity for a camera to capture still images or video recordings.

What is the model of the camera chip?
5megapixels CMOS camera chip.

What is the camera specification?
The camera card specifications are as follows:
•Aperture: f2.8
•Focal length: 2.7mm
•Shooting range: 0.2m→∞
•Field of view: 66 degree
•Optical Distortion: 0.24%
•White balance: Automatic
•Gain: Automatic
•Exposure control: Automatic

What is the camera resolution?
The camera card is capable of taking images up to 5 megapixels (5MP) (2592×1944 pixels) and video recordings at resolutions up to 720p30.

What picture formats does the camera card support?
The camera card supports raw capturing, uncompressed YUV, JPEG422, RGB565, RGB555, and RGB444 photos. It also records H.264 video.

Does the Pine A64 come with a case?
Various official cases for the Pine A64 are available at Pine64 store.

Does the Pine A64 support IR receivers?
Yes, the Pine A64 board has reserved connectors for IR receivers and also introduces an official IR remote control that is available at Pine64 store.

Does the Pine A64 have the Real-Time Clock (RTC) feature?
Yes, the Pine A64 board comes with the RTC feature. The clock power source can be either come from optional 3V Lithium coin battery or Lipo battery.

Where can I purchase the Pine A64 board cost?
You can purchase the Pine A64 directly on

How much does the Pine A64 board cost?
The “BASIC” model costs $15.25, and the “PLUS” model costs $19.50, plus local taxes if applicable and shipping/handling fees.

What else will I need after I purchase the Pine A64 board?
Once you purchase the Pine A64 board, you will also need a power supply and microSD card for boot up (which are not included in the board purchase). The power supply and microSD card are available for purchase on our online store.

Is the Pine A64 available worldwide?

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Harvard Oliver Knill Mathematics and Physics

Harvard Oliver Knill Mathematics Physics

Index of /archive/118r_spring_05/handouts
Icon Name
[DIR] Parent Directory
[ ] 2dperiodic.pdf
[ ] 3dexamples.pdf
[ ] approximation.pdf
[ ] archimedes.pdf
[ ] bernoulli.pdf
[ ] billiard.pdf
[ ] caintro.pdf
[ ] caustic.pdf
[ ] caustics.pdf
[ ] chaotic.pdf
[ ] complex.pdf
[ ] conclusion.pdf
[ ] dynamicalsystems.pdf
[ ] entropy.pdf
[ ] escape.pdf
[ ] examples.pdf
[ ] existence.pdf
[ ] exterior.pdf
[ ] feigenbaum.pdf
[ ] fixedpoint.pdf
[ ] fractal.pdf
[ ] geodesic.pdf
[ ] geodesics.pdf
[ ] hedlund.pdf
[ ] henon.pdf
[ ] hilbert.pdf
[TXT] hint6.txt
[ ] homework.pdf
[ ] homework1.pdf
[ ] homework10.pdf
[ ] homework11.pdf
[ ] homework2.pdf
[ ]
[ ] homework3.pdf
[ ] homework4.pdf
[ ] homework5.pdf
[ ] homework6.pdf
[ ] homework7.pdf
[ ] homework8.pdf
[ ] homework9.pdf
[ ] hopf.pdf
[ ] horseshoe.pdf
[ ] ice1.pdf
[ ] ice2.pdf
[ ] integrable.pdf
[ ] introduction.pdf
[ ] lattice.pdf
[ ] lecture1.pdf
[ ] lecture2.pdf
[ ] lecture3.pdf
[ ] lienard.pdf
[ ] life.pdf
[ ] linearization.pdf
[ ] lorentz.pdf
[ ] lorentz2.pdf
[ ] lyapunov.pdf
[ ] mandelbrot.pdf
[ ] measure.pdf
[ ] minimal.pdf
[ ] nbody.pdf
[ ] openproblems.pdf
[ ] poincare.pdf
[ ] polygonal.pdf
[IMG] poster.gif
[ ] preliminaries.pdf
[ ] project.pdf
[ ] quiz.pdf
[ ] quizz11.pdf
[ ] rest.pdf
[IMG] roessler.gif
[ ]
[ ] shift.pdf
[ ] sitnikov.pdf
[ ] survival.pdf
[ ] symbolic.pdf
[ ] text.pdf
[ ] turing.pdf
[ ] vlasov.pdf
[ ] weyl.pdf
[ ] zeipel.pdf
Apache/2.2.15 (Red Hat) Server at Port 80

The Monte-Carlo Method (Little Mathematics Library)

The Monte-Carlo Method (Little Mathematics Library)

Everybody had at some moment used the words âprobabilityâ
and ârandom variableâ. The intuitive idea of the probability (considered as frequency) corresponds more or less to the true meaning of this concept. But as a rule the intuitive idea of the random variable differs quite considerably from the mathematical definition. Thus, the notion of the probability is assumed known in Sec. 2, and only the more complicated notion of the random variable is clarified. This section cannot replace a course in the probability
theory: the presentation is simplified and proofs are omitted.
But it still presents certain concept of the random variables sufficient for understanding of Monte Carlo techniques.

The basic aim of this book is to prompt the specialists in various branches of knowledge to the fact that there are problems in their fields that can be solved by the Monte Carlo method.

Creating / renewing a Let’s Encrypt certificate for Apache and WildFly

Creating / renewing a Let’s Encrypt certificate for Apache and WildFly

These instructions were written for Ubuntu 16, but they should translate quite easily to other flavours of *nix, relatively easily for macOS, and with only small tweaks for Windows. Probably.

Contents [hide]

1 Apache
1.1 Installing certbot
2 WildFly
2.1 Converting the PEM file
2.2 Generating the keystore
Renewing the Apache portion of the certificate is fairly easy – Let’s Encrypt’s certbot can handle that for you. In my case, I’d not renewed since the certbot was brought in, so a bit of installation was required.

Installing certbot
I have some locale settings issues on my box. I’m not certain if that’s because I mucked something up or there’s some weird defaults, but I need to manually set the locale before a lot of things. Yes, I should really stick it into a startup script, but I tend to forget about it the moment I’m done with it. Perhaps after this article.

In any case, to set some locale settings so that install will work, enter

export LC_ALL=C

export LC_ALL=C
To install the certbot from scratch, I followed the instructions here. I’ll repeat the easy parts below, and include parts on renewal, but you should read through that article for a more in-depth treatment and your initial certificate generation. Note that some of these commands require sudo access, so it might be easier to paste them in one at a time – at least for the first one, so that you can type in your password. I didn’t do that, and it was relatively exciting afterwards.

Not bad, just relatively exciting. Anyways, to install certbot:

sudo mkdir /opt/certbot
cd /opt/certbot
sudo wget
sudo chmod a+x certbot-auto

sudo mkdir /opt/certbot
cd /opt/certbot
sudo wget
sudo chmod a+x certbot-auto
Now that certbot is (hopefully) installed, we need to ask it to renew our certificate. If you’re setting up an initial certificate, see this link again. To renew the certificate, just issue a command like

/opt/certbot/certbot-auto renew

/opt/certbot/certbot-auto renew
Many many status messages will scroll down, finishing with something like (for an Apache setup)

new certificate deployed with reload of apache server; fullchain is

new certificate deployed with reload of apache server; fullchain is
With YOURDOMAIN replaced with your actual domain, obviously.

Next up, we need to get the public and private keys into Wildfly. Apache was setup with the public and private keys pointed to separately, but Wildfly (well, Java) works off of a keystore. What we’re going to do is generate a new keystore that contains your new private and public keys, as read off of the /etc/letsencrypt/live/YOURDOMAIN/fullchain.pem file that certbot generated earlier.

Converting the PEM file
To do this, we need to convert the PEM file into a P12 file that is readable by the keytool. This is accomplished by issuing the OpenSSL command, after making suitable replacements.

sudo openssl pkcs12 -export -in /etc/letsencrypt/live/YOURDOMAIN/fullchain.pem -inkey /etc/letsencrypt/live/YOURDOMAIN/privkey.pem -out YOURKEYSTORENAME.p12 -name KEYSTOREALIAS

sudo openssl pkcs12 -export -in /etc/letsencrypt/live/YOURDOMAIN/fullchain.pem -inkey /etc/letsencrypt/live/YOURDOMAIN/privkey.pem -out YOURKEYSTORENAME.p12 -name KEYSTOREALIAS
The YOURDOMAIN replacement is the folder corresponding to the domain that you’re generating the key for, and was present in the listed output from the previous step. The KEYSTORENAME will become part of the generated file name, and will be used in the WildFly configuration, as will the KEYSTOREALIAS. These can be anything of your choice. Once you’ve pressed enter, you’ll be prompted (and verified) for a new password. This new password will be used in a moment when we generate the keystore.

You may not need the sudo part of the command, but you more likely will as people shouldn’t generally have read permissions to the various keys.

Generating the keystore
Once the certificate has been converted, we need to produce the keystore. This again is a one-liner with some substitutions:

keytool -importkeystore -deststorepass WILDFLY_NEW_STORE_PASS -destkeypass WILDLFY_NEW_KEY_PASS -destkeystore NEW_KEYSTORE_FILE.jks -srckeystore YOURKEYSTORENAME.p12 -srcstoretype PKCS12 -srcstorepass PREVIOUSPASSWORD -alias KEYSTOREALIAS
keytool -importkeystore -deststorepass WILDFLY_NEW_STORE_PASS -destkeypass WILDLFY_NEW_KEY_PASS -destkeystore NEW_KEYSTORE_FILE.jks -srckeystore YOURKEYSTORENAME.p12 -srcstoretype PKCS12 -srcstorepass PREVIOUSPASSWORD -alias KEYSTOREALIAS
There are a couple of substitutions here – new ones are a password for the keystore, a password for the key within the keystore, and the name of the resulting keystore. The other substitutions are either from the previous step, or from the password created as part of the previous step.

This will result in a keystore with your chosen name being generated in your current folder. You can copy this to your WildFly’s configuration folder, e.g.

sudo cp NEW_KEYSTORE_FILE.jks /opt/wildfly/standalone/configuration/

sudo cp NEW_KEYSTORE_FILE.jks /opt/wildfly/standalone/configuration/
WildFly configuration

Finally, we need to add the keystore to WildFly. There are many posts detailing how to set up SSL for WildFly, and this is really more focused on renewing certificates, so we’ll check just that. Find the section, and specifically the one you’re setting up – Undertow in my case.

Update your tag as

Reboot WildFly with


sudo system wildfly restart

sudo system wildfly restart
And you’re all done. For a coupla months.

How Netflix gets out of the way of innovation

How Netflix gets out of the way of innovation

Adrian Cockcroft’s Blog
Started in 2004. Covers anything I find interesting, like clouds, cars and strange complex music. Views expressed are my own and not those of my employers (currently AWS). See also @adrianco

Friday, December 30, 2011
How Netflix gets out of the way of innovation
#defrag 2011 presentation script.

I’m the cloud architect for Netflix, but rather than tell you about why we moved Netflix to a cloud architecture or how we built our cloud architecture, I’m going to tell you what we do differently at Netflix to create a culture that supports innovation.

What is it that lets us get things done very quickly. Sometimes a bit too qwikly…. but how did we keep making big strategic moves, from DVD to streaming, from Datacenter to Public Cloud, from USA only to International, all in very short timescales with a fairly small team of engineers.

My presentation slides are just box-shots of movies and TV shows that are available on Netflix streaming. This script is based on the notes I made to figure out what I was going to say for each box shot. If some of you see a show you didn’t know we had and want to watch that would make me happy, you can click on the box shot to visit that movie at Netflix, they were all available for streaming in the USA at the time of writing.

I’ve attempted to match the box shots loosely as cues to what I’m saying, but I’ve also used a musical theme in places since this is for Defrag and Defrag rocks!

Netflix is now one of the largest sites that runs almost entirely on public cloud infrastructure. We have become a poster child for how to build an architecture that takes full advantage of the Amazon Web Services cloud. But when I talk to other large companies about what we have done, they seem to have a lot of reasons why they couldn’t or didn’t do what we did, even if they wanted to.

Why is that? Why are we heading in one direction while everyone else is going the other way? Are we crazy or are they zombies? Well, I’ve worked at other large companies so I have some perspective on the issues.

Before I joined Netflix I worked at eBay for a few years, and helped found eBay Research Labs. This was setup because eBay felt it wasn’t innovating fast enough, and they were looking for the one missing ingredient that would drive more innovation into the company.

This is a fairly common approach. “You guys go and be innovative, then hopefully we will find ways to spread it around a bit.” Unfortunately the end result of setting up a separate group to add innovation to a big company is more comical than useful.

The most interesting projects got tied in knots, they trod on too many toes or were scary. We visited Xerox Parc and IBM Santa Teresa Labs to discuss how they were setup, to try and learn what might work., and we went to an Innovation Forum in New York. That was weird, some of the primary examples they were talking about emulating were eBay and Paypal!

The projects that did get out were minor tweaks to existing ideas, they could be fun, but ultimately not very interesting.

So I had to break out of there and find something new to do, and in 2007 I joined Netflix just as they first launched streaming.

One of the key attractions for me was the Netflix culture I heard about in the interviews, I wanted to get inside their heads and figure out if what they were describing was real, and if so, was it sustainable as the company grew.

What I found out over the next few years is that the culture is what enables innovation, so that Netflix can get things done quickly that other companies are too scared or too slow to try. The rest of this talk is about the key things that we do differently at Netflix.

Before I get into them I want to warn you that even with a roadmap and a guide, you probably won’t be able to follow this path if you are in a large established company. Your existing culture won’t let you. However if you are creating a new company from scratch, I hope you can join me in what I hope is the future of cool places to work.

Here’s the key insight. It’s the things you don’t do that make the difference. You don’t add innovation to a company culture, you get out of its way.

I’m mostly going for SciFi at this point, because it’s going to sound like I was beamed in from the future to some of you.

Let me repeat that. You have to setup a company that doesn’t do many of the things you would consider business as usual. That’s why it’s so hard to retrofit.

How about some audience participation? Hands up everyone who hates answering questions by putting their hands up..

Who works at a company that has more than one product line? Do you get along? The problem is that the company loses focus and has trouble allocating resources where they are needed so there are big fights. Pick one big thing and do it well. For Netflix, our addressable market is everyone in the universe who likes watching movies and TV shows, that should keep us busy for a while.

Who has teams spread over multiple sites and countries? We don’t. It adds communication and synchronization overhead that slows your organization down. For the geeks, think of Amdahl’s law applied to people. We have as many people as possible in the same building on the same site. We are planning a new bigger building to make sure we can keep everyone close together. High bandwidth, low latency communication.

Who’s worked for a place that bought another company, then run it into the ground, laid everyone off and wrote down the value. Over and over again. It’s crazy. I don’t think Netflix has ever bought another company. It’s a huge disruption to the culture, if you see something you like just hire away their best people and out execute them in the market.

Who has junior engineers, graduate hires and interns writing code? We don’t. We find that engineers who cost twice as much are far more than twice as productive, and need much less management overhead. Reducing management overhead is a key enabler for an innovative culture. Engineers who don’t need to be managed are worth paying extra for. We are tiny compared to companies like Google, they take on raw talent and develop it, we sometimes take a chance on someone with only five years experience.

Who has an architecture review board and centralized coding standards? We don’t have that either. What we do have is tooling that creates a path of least resistance, which combined with peer pressure keeps quality high. The engineers are free and responsible for figuring it out for themselves.

Who has an ITops team that owns keeping code running in production? We don’t. The developers run what they wrote. Everyone’s cell phone is in the pagerduty rota, the trick is making sure you don’t need to get called. All the ops people here have horror stories of stupid developers, and vice versa, but it doesn’t have to be that way. We have one dev organization that does everything and no IT ops org involvement in our AWS cloud deployment.

Who has to ask permission before deploying 100’s or 1000’s of servers? We don’t. The developers use our portal directly, they have to file a Change Management ticket to record what they did if it’s in production, that’s all. We’ve trained our developers to operate their own code. We create and destroy up to 1000 servers a day, just pushing new code. AWS takes about 5 minutes to allocate 100 servers, it takes longer than that just to boot Linux on them.

Who has a centralized push cycle and has to wait for the next “train” before they can ship their code? We don’t. Every team manages their own release schedule. New code updates frequently, and the pace slows for mature services. Teams are responsible for managing interface evolution and dependencies themselves. Freedom and responsibility again.

Who has project managers tracking deliverables? We don’t. The line managers do it themselves. They own the resources and set the context for their teams. They have time to do this because we took the BS out of their role.
Managers have to be great at hiring, technical and hands on enough to architect what their team does, and project manage to deliver results. Don’t split this into three people. Reduce management overhead, minimize BS and time wasted. Teams are typically 3-7 people. Have a weekly team meeting and 1on1 with each engineer to maintain context.

Who has a single standard for development tools? We don’t. We assume developers already know how to make themselves productive. We provide some common patterns to get new hires started, like Eclipse, IntelliJ, on Mac, Windows. Some people use Emacs on Linux. Hire experienced engineers who care, and they will take care of code quality and standards without being told how to.

Who has to work with people they don’t respect? It’s much too disruptive. The only way to get high talent density is to get rid of the people who are out of their depth or coasting.

That also applies to what you might call brilliant jerks. Even if they do great work, the culture can’t tolerate prima donna anti-social behavior, so people who don’t trust others or share what they know don’t fit in.

So does that mean we value conformity? No but it’s really important to be comfortable as part of a high performance team, so we look for people who naturally over-communicate and have a secure confident personality type.

If you haven’t experienced a high performance culture, think about what it’s like to drive flat out at a race track. Some people will be too scared to deal with it and drive around white knuckled at 40 mph, some will be overconfident and crash on the first corner, but for people who fit into the high performance culture it’s exhilarating to push yourself to go faster each lap, and learn from your peers without a speed limit. When you take out the BS and friction, everyone gets so much more done that productivity, innovation and rapid agile development just happen. This is the key message, removing obstacles to a high performance culture is how innovation happens throughout an organization. Doing less to get more.

We don’t pay bonuses. We don’t have grades other than senior engineer, manager, director, VP. We don’t count the hours or the vacation days, we say “take some”. Once a year we revise everyones salary to their peers and current market rate – based on what we are paying now to hire the best people we can find.

We also have what sounds like a crazy stock option plan that grants options every month, vests the same day, and they last 10 years even if you leave Netflix. The net of this is less work for managers, they can concentrate on hiring top people, and almost everyone that leaves takes a pay cut. The test we make is “would you fight to keep your engineers if they tried to leave”. If not, let them go now and get someone better. We don’t make it hard to let people go.

Some of you may be thinking this sounds expensive, but what is the value of being incredibly productive and able to move faster than your competition? You can get out ahead and establish a leading position before anyone else realizes you are even in the game. Remember how a few years ago the “Analysts” said that Netflix the DVD company was going to get killed by other companies streaming, then all of a sudden people realized that we were streaming more bandwidth than anyone else?

So what could possibly go wrong? We had a near miss recently, we went too fast, partly because we could, got unlucky and screwed up. The good thing is that Netflix could re-plan and execute on the fixes we need very quickly as well, with no internal angst and finger-pointing. Also there was an Asteroid nearby earlier this week. By the way, my stepdaughter @raedioactive was the art director for this movie.

So, you are at a crossroads, you could be on stage with Eric Clapton, or in the audience watching and wondering why you can’t do what they are doing. It’s a radically different way to construct a corporate culture, it doesn’t work for everyone, and we can’t all be up on stage with Eric, but the talent is out there if you start by building a culture focused on talent density to find it and keep it.

Is it going to be the goats or the glory? I just told you all to stop doing things, what could be easier than that? It takes less process, fewer rules and simpler principles. Give people freedom, hold them responsible, replace the ones that can’t or won’t perform in that environment. Focus on talent density and conserving management attention span by removing the BS from their jobs.

This is your challenge, can you get a band together and go on a mission to save your company? Stop doing all the things that are slowing you down, and get rid of the unproductive BS that clogs up your management and engineers.

I will take questions in the comments or on twitter to @adrianco. Thank you.

Each question got a new box shot, but all the answers were musical.
Adrian Cockcroft at 6:25 PM


I’d work at a place like this for half my current salary, but apparently that would hurt my chances of getting a job there. 🙂
This place sounds so wonderful for an engineer, to me it’s like something out of a Science Fiction novel.


Adrian Cockcroft9:09 PM
Thanks for the comment ZEYEZ, I hope this is what the future looks like for more people… I like Alan Kay’s quote: “Don’t worry about what anybody else is going to do… The best way to predict the future is to invent it. Really smart people with reasonable funding can do just about anything that doesn’t violate too many of Newton’s Laws!”


donour9:38 AM
Wow. That’s amazingly down-to-earth attitude from upper management. In track verbage, “don’t lift.”


Mike Coon6:44 PM
Remove BS and eliminate friction – love it!


eviltimes7:38 PM
Too bad it doesn’t work for the customers.


Yann Cébron3:16 AM
A nice and thought-provoking read, thanks.


Dave Hoover6:35 AM
It’s a great read, and almost all of what you shared resonated with me. Thanks for taking the time to write it!

Here’s where you lost me: “we sometimes take a chance on someone with only five years experience.” I encourage you to stretch toward incompetency. There are tangible benefits to growing people while you continue to hire for experience. We had great success with it at Obtiva, and have now brought that with us to Groupon.

Would love to chat more about it if you’re interested.



chochis8:10 AM


Quantum Biker8:23 AM
Wonderful! I am a software engineer and I own Netflix stock – now if I could just get a job like that……


Unknown8:24 AM
Adrian, you dont talk much about leadership. Is each team self-organizing and lead? what’s your take on the importance of leadership? how do you find the leaders? who steers the direction of the product/stories?


StuartHughes2:14 PM
Adrian excellent article that covers some of the things i ponder on a daily basis. I have a few questions on the same topic. how do you control the list of ideas that everyone has? how do you manage the prioritisation of the work you do? who decides what each team should do? how do you manage dependencies between teams? it would be great to understand how you manage the ideas/work before he teams do it by ‘themselves’ and deliver


Alex Forbes3:38 PM

Something about this statement reminded me of what a peer code review tool like CodeCollaborator does for development teams:

“Who has an architecture review board and centralized coding standards? We don’t have that either. What we do have is tooling that creates a path of least resistance, which combined with peer pressure keeps quality high. The engineers are free and responsible for figuring it out for themselves.”

Are you currently using a peer review tool to automate the code review process?



Martin Aatmaa1:57 AM
I am going to print this out and post it all over my company’s walls. Thank you.


Manish10:54 AM
“Reducing management overhead is a key enabler for an innovative culture.”

very well said…

Excellent article!


GowanNZ2:16 PM
Great attitude. When is Netflix comming to New Zealand?


Marisha9:43 PM
What does BS mean here?


togume12:54 PM
Nice job. Key message for me is that it’s about people and culture, and not necessarily technology. The technology is sometimes a personal choice (IDE/editor), as well as the raw material for innovation.


John Ryding3:05 AM

Thanks for the peek into the culture of Netflix engineering. Question though, was the culture at Netflix always like this, or did it evolve over time? If it wasn’t always like this, how did it change?


jasonsirota10:46 AM
Question: You mention that the dev teams are responsible for their own uptime. We want to implement something similar here but we’re having trouble with monitoring tooling. Seems like Nagios and other software is designed for central administration rather than distributed usage. What do you use to manage individual monitors and notifications? Built in-house or customized OSS?


Mike King3:00 PM
Great post with many items for all of us to consider regardless of where we are…..

One question I had from a colleague was

How does Netflix deal with things like PCI, SOX and other “programs” that seem to drive us deep into marching to the same drummer over a cliff….Lemmings


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From kafkatrap to honeytrap

From kafkatrap to honeytrap

The short version is: if you are any kind of open-source leader or senior figure who is male, do not be alone with any female, ever, at a technical conference. Try to avoid even being alone, ever, because there is a chance that a “women in tech” advocacy group is going to try to collect your scalp.

IRC conversation, portions redacted to protect my informant, follows.

15:17:58 XXXXXXXXXXXX | I’m super careful about honey traps. For a
| while, that’s how the Ada Initiative was
| trying to pre-generate outrage and collect
| scalps.
15:18:12 esr | REALLY?
15:18:22 esr | That’s perverse.
15:18:42 XXXXXXXXXXXX | Yeah, because the upshot is, I no longer
| can afford to mentor women who are already
| in tech.
15:18:54 esr | Right.
15:19:01 XXXXXXXXXXXX | I can and do mentor ones who are not in
| it, but are interested and able
15:19:21 XXXXXXXXXXXX | but once one is already in… nope
15:20:08 XXXXXXXXXXXX | The MO was to get alone with the target,
| and then immediately after cry “attempted
| sexual assault”.
15:23:27 esr | When the backlash comes it’s going to be
| vicious. And women who were not part of
| this bullshit will suffer for it.
15:23:41 XXXXXXXXXXXX | I can only hope.
15:25:21 esr | Ah. On the “Pour encourager les autres”
| principle? I hadn’t thought of that.
| Still damned unfortunate, though.
15:26:40 XXXXXXXXXXXX | Linus is never alone at any conference.
| This is not because he lets fame go to his
| head and likes having a posse around.
15:26:54 XXXXXXXXXXXX | They have made multiple runs at him.
15:27:29 esr | Implied warning noted.
15:27:34 * | XXXXXXXXXXXX nods
An A&D regular who is not myself was present for this conversation, but I’ll let him choose whether to confirm his presence and the content.

“They have made multiple runs at him.” Just let the implications of that sink in for a bit. If my source is to be believed (and I have found him both well-informed and completely trustworthy in the past) this was not a series of misunderstandings, it was a deliberately planned and persistent campaign to frame Linus and feed him to an outrage mob.

I have to see it as an an attempt to smear and de-legitimize the Linux community (and, by extension, the entire open-source community) in order to render it politically pliable.

Linus hasn’t spoken out about this; I can think of several plausible and good reasons for that. And the Ada Initiative shut down earlier this year. Nevertheless, this report is consistent with reports of SJW dezinformatsiya tactics from elsewhere and I think it would be safest to assume that they are being replicated by other women-in-tech groups.

(Don’t like that, ladies? Tough. You were just fine with collective guilt when the shoe was on the other foot. Enjoy your turn!)

I’m going to take my source’s implied advice. And view “sexual assault” claims fitting this MO with extreme skepticism in the future.

– – –

Pastors and church leaders (the careful ones anyway) have had to follow this rule for a long time.

And observant Jews; see (Though that rule was instituted to prevent both consensual illicit sex and rape as much as false allegations.)